Digital Propaganda Or ‘Normal’ Political Polarization? A Case Study of Political Debate on Polish Twitter
This policy brief by Katarzyna Szymielewicz and Karolina Iwańska at the Panoptykon Foundation draws on the findings of research conducted by Pawel Popiel and Emad Khazraee for the Internet Policy Observatory and submitted for academic publication. This collaborative research sought to better understand the shape of political debate on Polish Twitter, the role of Bots and false amplifiers, and political polarization in these spaces. This research was conducted in September and October of 2017, with one million tweets collected and analyzed.