Turkey’s Internet Policy After the Coup Attempt: The Emergence of a Distributed Network of Online Suppression and Surveillance
By Bilge Yesil, Efe Kerem Sozeri, and Emad Khazraee
In July 2016, Turkey was shaken by a bloody coup attempt. Although the would-be putschists failed, their insurgency led to an unprecedented reshuffling of Turkey’s political economic and socio-cultural landscapes. Notwithstanding the critical reverberations on the army, judiciary, law enforcement and civil society, the abortive coup set in motion a massive purge of civil servants, closure of media outlets, arrests of journalists, and blocking of websites and social media accounts.
It is often said that you can see the Great Wall of China from the space- it turns out it is a myth. But you can surely see China’s Great Firewall from world maps illuminating Facebook traffic. The gaping hole of darkness, in the land with the world’s largest internet population, shows the impact of China’s internet censorship. The Great Firewall of China (known as GFW) blocks foreign websites, including Google, Facebook, Twitter and YouTube. It also monitors internet conversations through keyword filtering.
This study aims to map the controversy surrounding the Marco Civil da Internet (Civil Framework for the Internet) in Brazil. Drawing on a Twitter dataset spanning from August 2012 to December 2013, this study uses a series of methods, including data mining, processing, and information visualization, to produce a historiography of collective actions related to the Marco Civil. The Twitter conversations traced in this paper began on October 27, 2009 when Brazil’s Ministry of Culture, in partnership with the National Education and Research Network (RNP), launched a national campaign to discuss the Marco Civil. With broad participation from civil society, the first draft of the bill was developed on “Digital Culture Brasil,” an open platform developed by the Ministry of Culture for public debate and conversation on federal policy issues concerning the internet. The #MarcoCivil platform on the “Digital Culture” website catalyzed a series of robust discussions online, using the Twitter profile @MarcoCivil (run by the administrators of the Digital Culture platform) and the #MarcoCivil hashtag.
IPO Affiliate Sarah Logan investigates the international expansion of one of China’s biggest internet technology companies, Baidu, using Baidu’s recent attempted expansion into Vietnam as a test case and taking a mixed methods approach. This paper contributes a new area of research on the geopolitical associations of internet technology platforms to existing studies of the social, political implication of information technology. It adds to studies of the state in cyberspace by showing that, at least for Chinese companies in Vietnam, the state is embodied in perceptions of the platform, even outside the state’s physical borders: the company itself is ‘bordered.’